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MIDDLE Intervention

MIDDLE, “Mainstreaming and Inclusion of children with Developmental Disabilities in Learning in Ethiopia”, is a co-developed intervention aimed at finding a middle ground between inclusive and special education, and at holding children with developmental disabilities (DD) in the middle - or at the centre - of the school community. Results of a pilot evaluation study suggested that implementing MIDDLE is overall feasible and positive effects were reported in the inclusivity of school communities, and the development and school experience of enrolled children with DD and the outreach of unschooled children with DD in the community.

MIDDLE has three core components:

  1. an awareness-raising session for the school community

  2. a resource assessment and the subsequent creation of two education pathways for children with DD with different support needs

    • pathway 1: inclusion in regular classes

    • pathway 2: learning in a special unit subdivided in grades

  3. a group teacher training programme followed by group supervision and a refresher course.


Additional intervention resources were developed to support school communities in further promoting inclusion.


The awareness-raising session (currently not available below) was adapted from a session developed in SPARK Phase 1. Adaptations include the addition of clear references to the ability of children with DD to learn and their right to education and a change in the format of delivery, from a workshop format to a presentation that can be delivered to large audiences.


All other MIDDLE materials are available below. For editable versions of the materials and information on how to deliver the full intervention, please contact us at

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